black mamba fahrzeit
 It is not commonly found at altitudes above 1,000 m (3,300 ft), although its distribution does include locations at 1,800 m (5,900 ft) in Kenya and 1,650 m (5,410 ft) in Zambia. Contrary to what its name would suggest, black mambas are actually brownish in color, ranging from olive to greyish tones, with paler bellies. It is also considered to be one of the deadliest. The black mamba's skin is not actually black, it gets its name from the colour of the roof of its mouth.. Review von Crazy Bats (Phantasialand, Brühl) mit vielen Fotos und Hintergrundbericht. Despite its reputation as a formidable and highly aggressive species, the black mamba attacks humans only if it is threatened or cornered. , Unlike many venomous snake species, black mamba venom does not contain protease enzymes. In a threat display, the black mamba usually opens its inky-black mouth, spreads its narrow neck-flap and sometimes hisses. Die Fahrt könnte von mir aus aber noch etwas schwungvoller sein und leider ist die Fahrzeit im Verhältnis zur langen Pre-Show für meinen Geschmack etwas zu kurz. Vom gemütlichen „Marienkäfer“ bis zur atemberaubenden „Black Mamba“. und wollte zum ersten Mal die black Mamba fahren, da ich immer nur taron usw. “Similar to cottonmouths, when threatened a mamba will open its mouth to show the black lining as a warning signal.”Black mambas have coffin-shaped heads and are lithe, athletic snakes.  Fasciculins are anticholinesterase inhibitors that cause muscle fasciculation. , The composition of black mamba venom differs markedly from those of other mambas, all of which contain predominantly three-finger toxin agents. Personen unter 1,00 m Körpergröße dürfen nicht mitfahren. [a] Its mouth is lined with 7–8 supralabial scales above, with the fourth and sometimes also the third one located under the eye, and 10-14 sublabial scales below. The species is both terrestrial (ground-living) and arboreal (tree-living); it inhabits savannah, woodland, rocky slopes and in some regions, dense forest.  Young snakes have been recorded as prey of the Cape file snake.  The body mass of black mambas has been reported to be about 1.6 kg (3.5 lb), although a study of seven black mambas found an average weight of 1.03 kg (2.3 lb), ranging from 520 g (1.15 lb) for a specimen of 1.01 m (3 ft 4 in) total length to 2.4 kg (5.3 lb) for a specimen of 2.57 m (8 ft 5 in) total length. Despite its name, the snake is not black. ; Personen über 1,20 m Körpergröße dürfen ohne Begleitung mitfahren. Christoph 2017-02-19 20:46:42. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Die Schwierigkeit – beim Abnehmen den …  The bite of a black mamba can cause collapse in humans within 45 minutes or less. Nutzungsbedingungen . Prey consists primarily of small mammals and birds.  Rival males compete by wrestling, attempting to subdue each other by intertwining their bodies and wrestling with their necks. , The black mamba is oviparous; the female lays a clutch of 6–17 eggs. , The black mamba is a long, slender, cylindrical snake. Over suitable surfaces, it can move at speeds up to 16 km/h (10 mph) for short distances. Sie gehört zu den teuersten Achterbahn-Projekten … Juvenile black mambas are very apprehensive and can be deadly like the adults. The neurotoxic nature of black mamba venom means an arterial tourniquet may be of benefit.  During mating, the male will slither over the dorsal side of the female while flicking its tongue. In the wild, black mambas will typically live at least 11 years, while those in captivity have life spans of more than 20 years.  Other more general symptoms include nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, sweating, salivation, goosebumps and red eyes. Die Black Mamba [ ˌblækˈmæmbə] (englisch für „ Schwarze Mamba “) ist eine Achterbahn im Themenbereich Deep in Africa [ ˈdiːp ɪn ˈæfɹɪkə] (englisch für „Tief in Afrika“) des Phantasialands in Brühl. Black mamba, (Dendroaspis polylepis), species of mamba snake known for its large size, quickness, and extremely potent venom. Although it has an aggressive reputation, the black mamba is generally shy and nervous, and it will use its incredible speed to escape threats. A mamba-specific antivenom was introduced in 1962, followed by a fully polyvalent antivenom in 1971.  The eggs are elongated oval in shape, typically 60–80 mm (2.4–3.1 in) long and 30–36 mm (1.2–1.4 in) in diameter. , The black mamba usually hunts from a permanent lair, to which it will regularly return if there is no disturbance. , Specimens vary considerably in colour, including olive, yellowish-brown, khaki and gunmetal but are rarely black.  The generic name of the species is derived from the Ancient Greek words dendron (δένδρον), "tree", and aspis (ἀσπίς) "asp", and the specific epithet polylepis is derived from the Ancient Greek poly (πολύ) meaning "many" and lepis (λεπίς) meaning "scale".  Mongooses, which have some resistance to mamba venom and are often quick enough to evade a bite, will sometimes take a black mamba for prey. It is rated as least concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List of Threatened Species.  The venom is composed of two main families of toxic agents, dendrotoxins (I and K) and (at a slightly lower proportion) three-finger toxins.  Young mambas in the Serengeti are known to fall prey to southern ground hornbills, marsh owls and hooded vultures. , This article is about a species of venomous snake. Its skin colour varies from grey to dark brown.  It is rated as a species of least concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List of endangered species, based on its huge range across sub-Saharan Africa and no documented decline. We have currently deployed 26 Black Mambas and a further 23 armed guards that operate within Balule and along its boundaries. It features a very powerful venom and that has many people running scared from it. However, it is quite thin with an overall size of about 3 ½ pounds. The black mamba is found in rocky savannas and lowland forests. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It's the black mamba, Africa's longest — and the world's fastest — snake. However, if disturbed or cornered, the snake may rear up and threaten with an open mouth and a slightly expanded or flattened neck (or hood) before striking; once a black mamba attacks, it will bite its victim repeatedly. For other uses, see. Erlebe die einmalige Fahrt auf der Black Mamba: Jage durch enge Schluchten und den afrikanischen Dschungel, mitten im Themenbereich Deep in Africa. , The black mamba inhabits a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa; its range includes Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Mozambique, Swaziland, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia, and Angola. The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is a species of highly venomous snake belonging to the family Elapidae.  Other eagles known to hunt or at least consume grown black mambas include tawny eagles and martial eagles. Der MP Express ist allerding rauer zu fahren, also ruckelt während der Fahrt strärker, was auch unter heftig zählt.  It also is likely to hiss and spread its neck into a hood similar to that of the cobras in the genus Naja.  Nonetheless, anecdotes have indicated that large black mambas may at times infrequently attack large prey such as rock hyrax or dassies, and in some tribal languages, its name even means "dassie catcher". Seit 2006befindet sich die 800 Meter lange Achterbahn im Park. It is capable of striking at considerable range and may deliver a series of bites in rapid succession. Taron ist eine Stahlachterbahn vom Typ Launched Coaster (Modell-Linie: Blitz Coaster) des Herstellers Intamin im Themenbereich Mystery des Phantasialands in Brühl.  The black mamba's distribution in parts of West Africa has been disputed. The venom of black mamba contains neurotoxins, cardiotoxins and several other toxins like fasciculins. When hatched, the young range from 40–60 cm (16–24 in) in length. The black actually refers to the colour of the inside of its mouth; green mambas and other snakes have white mouths. The black mamba typically lays 6 to 20 eggs. It is diurnal and is known to prey on birds and small mammals.  Bites were often fatal before antivenom was widely available. The black mamba is an olive-brown to grey colour, with a blue-black colouration on the inside of its mouth which gives this species its common name. There is research interest in their analgesic potential. The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is a species of highly venomous snake belonging to the family Elapidae. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/animal/black-mamba, Young Peoples Trust for the Environment - Black mamba. Unlike many snake species, black mamba venom has little phospholipase A2 content. Corrections? Those bitten before 1962 received a polyvalent antivenom that had no effect on black mamba venom, and 15 of 35 people who received the antivenom died. It lives in sub-Saharan Africa and is one of the continent’s most dangerous snakes.  The similarly predatory honey badger also has some resistance to mamba venom.  The black mamba has between 23 and 25 rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 248 to 281 ventral scales, 109 to 132 divided subcaudal scales, and a divided anal scale. Juvenile black mambas tend to be paler than adults and darken with age. Males get into fights in order to get affection from females. The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) belongs to the Elapidae family of snakes. [c] A census in rural Zimbabwe in 1991 and 1992 revealed 274 cases of snakebite, of which 5 died. Ausserdem hat Black Mamba eine super Thematisierung mit Felslandschaft und Schluchten was die Fahrt aufregender erscheinen lässt als beim relativ nackten MP Express. ... Da die Fahrzeit von einer Minute recht kurz ist, starten die Wagen manchmal zu einer zweiten Runde durch. , The black mamba is the most feared snake in Africa because of its size, aggression, venom toxicity and speed of onset of symptoms following envenomation, and is classified as a snake of medical importance by the World Health Organization.  Mambalgins act as inhibitors for acid-sensing ion channels in the central and peripheral nervous system, causing a pain-inhibiting effect. Zauberhafte Soundtracks, liebevolle Gestaltung mit vielen Details und eine gelungene Illusion für viele Gäste. Its extremely toxic venom—two drops of which will reportedly kill most humans—attacks both the nervous system and the heart. , The number and pattern of scales on a snake's body are a key element of identification to species level.  Bites are very rare outside Africa; snake handlers and enthusiasts are the usual victims.  The peak period for deaths is the species' breeding season from September to February, during which black mambas are most irritable. , The species prefers moderately dry environments such as light woodland and scrub, rocky outcrops and semi-arid savanna.  Without appropriate antivenom treatment, symptoms typically progress to respiratory failure, which leads to cardiovascular collapse and death. On the ground, it moves with its head and neck raised, and typically uses termite mounds, abandoned burrows, rock crevices and tree cracks as shelter. Die Black Mamba ist eine Hänge-loopingbahn, wo die Beine unter dem Sitz frei baumeln. Its eyes have 3 or occasionally 4 preocular and 2–5 postocular scales.  In Tanzania, a local Ngindo name is ndemalunyayo ("grass-cutter") because it supposedly clips grass. 4.5 out of 5 stars (2) 2 reviews.  The black mamba is a proteroglyphous (front-fanged) snake, with fangs up to 6.5 mm (0.26 in) in length, located at the front of the maxilla. In spite of being so thin though they are very strong. Once they mate, the females produce anywhere from 6 to 25 eggs in warm and damp burrows and leaves forever. The snake tends to bite repeatedly and let go, so there can be multiple puncture wounds. Pienaar, U. D. V., Haacke, W. D., & Jacobsen, N. H. G. (1966). It mostly preys on small vertebrates such as birds, particularly nestlings and fledglings, and small mammals like rodents, bats, hyraxes and bushbabies.  The tail of the species is long and thin, the caudal vertebrae making up 17–25% of its body length. Individuals occasionally display dark mottling towards the posterior, which may appear in the form of diagonal crossbands. / Black Mamba is the name of the Inverted Coaster [  The most toxic components are the alpha-neurotoxins, which bind nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and hence block the action of acetylcholine at the postsynaptic membrane and cause neuromuscular blockade and hence paralysis. , Standard first aid treatment for any suspected bite from a venomous snake is the application of a pressure bandage to the bite site, minimisation of movement of the victim and conveyance to a hospital or clinic as quickly as possible. Even though most bites are fatal, it is responsible for only a small number of deaths annually, and unprovoked attacks on humans have not been proved. Black Mamba (Tanya Sealy) is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.She first appeared in Marvel Two-in-One #64 (June 1980) created by writers Mark Gruenwald and Ralph Macchio.The character is most closely associated with the Serpent Society and BAD Girls, Inc. but has also been a member of the Masters of Evil, the Femizons and the Women …  The term "mamba" is derived from the Zulu word "imamba" (meaning scales). This observation, and a subsequent observation that identified a second specimen in the region in 1956, has not been confirmed and thus the snake's distribution in this area is inconclusive.  This typically occurs in 7 to 15 hours. Black Mamba Innovative Labs ohne DMAA ist ein EPH basierter Super Fatburner, Appetitzügler und eines der beliebtesten Abnehmprodukte am Markt!  The adult snake's length typically ranges from 2 to 3 m (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) but specimens have grown to lengths of 4.3 to 4.5 m (14 ft 1 in to 14 ft 9 in). Mindestabstand im Wartebereich .  In 1896, Belgian-British zoologist George Albert Boulenger combined the species Dendroaspis polylepis as a whole with the eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), a lumping diagnosis that remained in force until 1946 when South African herpetologist Vivian FitzSimons again split them into separate species. Instead, it ranges in colour from gray to dark brown, with a lighter underside. Ende Mai 2006 eröffnete der Brühler Freizeitpark seinen neuen Themenbereich Deep in Africa, welcher nicht nur durch seine detailverliebte Ausstattung beeindruckt, sondern in dessen Zentrum den wagemutigen Besucher zudem ein wahres Monster aus schwarzem Stahl erwartet: Der Inverted Coaster Black Mamba.  It also inhabits moist savanna and lowland forests. It is the second largest venomous snake in the world. Omissions? The snake's potent digestive system has been recorded to fully digest prey in eight to ten hours. Adult black mambas have few natural predators. Some observers have mistaken this for courtship. : Beinahezusammenstöße), bei denen die Bahn so nah an den Wänden vorbei-fährt, dass der Eindruck einer Kollision ent-steht. They may return daily to the same basking site. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  The venom has little or no haemolytic, haemorrhagic or procoagulant activity. It has a coffin-shaped head with a somewhat pronounced brow ridge and a medium-sized eye.  Early neurological signs that indicate severe envenomation include a metallic taste, drooping eyelids (ptosis) and gradual symptoms of bulbar palsy. , Skittish and often unpredictable, the black mamba is agile and can move quickly. ; Kinder zwischen 1,00 m und 1,20 m Körpergröße dürfen nur in Begleitung Erwachsener mitfahren, die dann die Aufsichtspflicht übernehmen. Of these 75 cases, 63 had symptoms of systemic envenomation and 21 died. , The black mamba is both terrestrial and arboreal. They may grow quickly, reaching 2 m (6 ft 7 in) after their first year. The female will signal its readiness to mate by lifting its tail and staying still. Black mambas live in the savannas and rocky hills of southern and eastern Africa.  They generally prefer warm-blooded prey but will also consume other snakes. Updates?  A polyvalent antivenom produced by the South African Institute for Medical Research is used to treat black mamba bites, and a new antivenom was being developed by the Universidad de Costa Rica's Instituto Clodomiro Picado. Black Mamba Anti-Poaching Unit is the first of its kind, being that the majority of our teams are women. Fahrzeuge Ihr startet mit dem Fahrzeug, mit dem ihr euch für die Serie eingeschrieben habt. The common name is derived from the appearance of the inside of the mouth, dark bluish-grey to nearly black. The Black Mamba is considered to be the longest venomous of all snakes found around Africa. Allgemein bin ich der Meinung, dass MP Express etwas unangenehmer zu fahren ist und Black Mamba etwas konfortabler. Its bites do not generally cause local swelling or necrosis, and the only initial symptom may be a tingling sensation in the area of the bite. It is thought this may reflect the preferred prey items – small mammals for the mainly land-dwelling black mamba versus birds for the predominantly arboreal other mambas. Kosten: 11 Millionen Euro für den Coast und nochmal 11 Millionen Euro für den Themenbereich Typ: Inverted Coaster Fahrzeit: 47 Sekunden Maximales Gefälle: 80° Höhe: 26m g-Kraft: max. Black Mamba onride - Phantasialand 2016 - Black Mamba in front erst Reihe - Inverted Coaster: Black Mamba heißt der Inverted Coaster im Phantasialand bei Brühl. An zehn Stellen erleben die Gäste sogenannte Near-Misses (dt. Sehr speziell bei diesem Inverted Coaster ist, dass man zu viert in einer Reihe sitzt und die Fahrt durch enge Schluchten. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast.  This specimen is the holotype and is housed in the Natural History Museum, London. In 1954, the black mamba was recorded in the Dakar region of Senegal. It is native to parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The black mamba lives in the south and the east of Africa. Specimens of 4.3 to 4.5 m (14 ft 1 in to 14 ft 9 in) have been reported. Black mambas have greyish-white underbellies. Snakes of Medical Importance include those with highly dangerous venom resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality, or those that are common agents in snakebite. Geschätzte Fahrzeit: 5:25 Stunden ... - Die Black Mamba, einer der schnellsten Achterbahnen Europas und das Wahrzeichen des Freizeitparks - Chiapas, die modernste Wasserbahn der Welt Inverted Coaster à la Phantasialand Das erste Drittel der Black Mamba wird abseits des geschäftigen Marktplatzes absolvier… 88950 Ein ungewöhnliches Jahr neigt sich dem Ende entgegen und wir fahren den letzten Lauf der VRL24H in Daytona. MOZZI // HUBS Kt black alloy disc CERCHI// RIMS Black alloy superlight GOMME // TYRES Cst 26x4.0 TUBO SELLA //SEAT POST Matt black alloy b-rider ATTACCO MANUBRIO // STEM Matt black alloy b-rider MANUBRIO // HANDLEBAR Matt black SELLA // SADDLE Selle Bassano Black Mamba BOX 180 0,25 m3 Rechtliche Hinweise.  Dendrotoxins are akin to kunitz-type protease inhibitors that interact with voltage-dependent potassium channels, stimulating acetylcholine and causing an excitatory effect, and are thought to cause symptoms such as sweating. Brown snake eagles are verified predators of adult black mambas, of up to at least 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in). gefahren bin weil ich vor black Mamba schiss habe nun ist mir aber eingefallen dass ich im Movie Park vor ein paar Jahren die Star Trek auch gefahren bin, die ja fast so ähnlich ist von den Loopings und Schrauben her, also ist es ungefähr genau so? This is also a ver… , During the threat display, any sudden movement by the intruder may provoke the snake into performing a series of rapid strikes, leading to severe envenomation. , Adult mambas have few natural predators aside from birds of prey. Unlike the other mamba species, the black mamba is not primarily arboreal, preferring the ground, where it often sleeps in termite mounds or tree hollows. Also die Ankündigung dass dort die Black Mamba entsteht kam im Sommer 2005, knapp ein Jahr vor Eröffnung. An adult black mamba can grow up to 14 feet (4.3 m) in length. Its venom is primarily composed of neurotoxins that often induce symptoms within ten minutes, and is frequently fatal unless antivenom is administered.  The black mamba's reputation for being ready to attack is exaggerated; it is usually provoked by perceived threats such as the blocking of its movements and ability to retreat.  The size of the black mamba and its ability to raise its head a large distance from the ground enables it to launch as much as 40% of its body length upwards, so mamba bites to humans can occur on the upper body.  The species' reputed speed has also been exaggerated; it cannot move more quickly than 20 km/h (12 mph).  When confronted it is likely to engage in a threat display, gaping to expose its black mouth and flicking its tongue. Black mambas are diurnal; in South Africa, they are recorded to bask between 7 and 10 am and again from 2 to 4 pm.  Member of the three-finger family include alpha-neurotoxin, cardiotoxins, fasciculins and mambalgins. Black Mamba.  Black mambas have also been found amongst the stomach contents of Nile crocodiles. One of the fastest snakes, it is capable of speeds of more than 12 miles (19 km) per hour. From shop DiannaDarby. 19. , In 1873, German naturalist Wilhelm Peters described Dendraspis Antinorii from a specimen in the museum of Genoa that had been collected by Italian explorer Orazio Antinori in what is now northern Eritrea. Die Black Mamba ist die Hauptattraktion des afrikanischen Themenbereichs.  Its bite can deliver about 100–120 mg of venom on average; the maximum recorded dose is 400 mg. The murine median lethal dose (LD50) when administered intravenously has been calculated at 0.32 and 0.33 mg/kg. The male will then coil itself around the posterior end of the female and align its tail ventrolaterally with the female's. P. Ionides", "Über zwei Giftschlangen aus Afrika und über neue oder weniger bekannte Gattungen und Arten von Batrachiern", "Kruger Park Times - Myths, facts and more about the Black Mamba...", Animal Diversity Web (ADW), University of Michigan, "Biology and treatment of the mamba snakebite", 10.1580/1080-6032(1996)007[0133:BATOTM]2.3.CO;2, "Kruger Park Birding: Eagles and Hawk-Eagles Birding Raptor Guide", "Watch a Mongoose Swing From a Deadly Snake", "Voices of Botswana: honey badger versus black mamba", "Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins", "Snakebite and the use of antivenom in southern Africa", "Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa", "Snake Bite: A review of Current Literature", "Meet the man who stops Kruger's lions from wandering the streets of South Africa", "UK student dies after snake bite in South Africa", "Student died after being bitten by snake", "Black mamba killed Wing student in South Africa – inquest", "Portraits of snake charm worth elephant-killing bite", "Snakes in a Frame: Mark Laita's Stunning Photographs of Slithering Beasts", "This Woman Survived One Of The Deadliest Snake Attacks", "Black mamba bite: Judge died before anti-venom could be administered", "Ето как спасиха живота на д-р Георги Еленски, ухапан от черна мамба", Black mamba – Clinical Toxinology Resources, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Black_mamba&oldid=991139637, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Distribution range of black mamba in red (brown areas are inconclusive), Danie Pienaar, who was at various times from at least 2009, American professional photographer Mark Laita was bitten on the leg by a black mamba during a photo-shoot of a black mamba at a facility in, In 2016, Kenyan woman Cheposait Adomo was attacked by three black mambas, one of which bit her repeatedly on the leg, in, Prominent South African anti-Apartheid activist and, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 13:43.  In the wild, black mambas seldom tolerate humans approaching more closely than about 40 metres (130 ft).  A 2016 genetic analysis showed the black and eastern green mambas are each other's closest relatives, and are more distantly related to Jameson's mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni). They are fast moving snakes and they are know to be aggressive and strike in a moments notice. The usual mating period for black mambas is summer or spring.  The mechanism in both mammals is thought to be that their muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors do not bind snake alpha-neurotoxins. Achterbahn-Experte Tobias Wahl aus Herdecke stellt zehn schnelle Bahnen vor. It lives in sub-Saharan Africa and is one of the continent’s most dangerous snakes. Das Video zeigt die Fahrt aus der ersten Reihe. First formally described by Albert Günther in 1864, it is the second-longest venomous snake after the king cobra; mature specimens generally exceed 2 m (6 ft 7 in) and commonly grow to 3 m (9 ft 10 in). The scales of some individuals may have a purplish sheen. 4,5 g. Das Black Mamba … Black Mamba Innovative Labs ohne DMAA Black Mamba Fatburner ohne DMAA. Alternative Titles: Dendroaspis polylepis, black-mouthed mamba Black mamba, (Dendroaspis polylepis), species of mamba snake known for its large size, quickness, and extremely potent venom. Die Black Mamba wurde bereits mehrfach national und international ausgezeichnet – unter anderem als eine der bestthematisierten Attraktionen Deutschlands!  It is the second-longest venomous snake species, exceeded in length only by the king cobra.  The black mamba does not typically hold onto its prey after biting; rather it releases its quarry and waits for it to succumb to paralysis and death before it swallows.  Other neurological symptoms include miosis, blurred or diminished vision, paresthesia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dyspnea, difficulty handling saliva, an absent gag reflex, fasciculations, ataxia, vertigo, drowsiness and loss of consciousness, and respiratory paralysis. The first formal description of the black mamba was made in 1864 by German-born British zoologist Albert Günther.  A single specimen was one of many species of snake collected by John Kirk, a naturalist who accompanied David Livingstone on the 1858–1864 Second Zambesi expedition.